Acute-phase sera should be collected within 1 week after illness onset, and convalescent sera should be collected 2 to 3 weeks later. Noncontemporary, wild-type human influenza H2N2 strains should be handled with increased caution. These sudden large changes allow the virus to infect new host species and quickly overcome protective immunity.
Influenza prevention These are the main ways that influenza spreads by direct transmission when an infected person sneezes mucus directly into the eyes, nose or mouth of another person ; the airborne route when someone inhales the aerosols produced by an infected person coughing, sneezing or spitting ; through hand-to-eye, hand-to-nose, or hand-to-mouth transmission, either from contaminated surfaces or from direct personal contact such as a hand-shake.
Molecular microarray tests using flow-through chip technology A molecular microarray for influenza typing and subtyping using a flow-thru chip platform was initially described in Kessler Two reports released in August involved a study of the FluChip diagnostic microarray and showed that the test could be a valuable tool in identifying influenza viruses MehlmannTownsend There may be specific requirements regarding the setting of containment levels in institutions that are subject to NIH guidelines.
However, influenza B mutates enough that lasting immunity is not possible. Peak antibody response occurs 4 to 7 weeks after infection. Most people will recover completely in about one to two weeks, but others will develop life-threatening complications such as pneumonia. The traditional influenza susceptibility testing method for the M2 ion channel inhibitors amantadine, rimantadine Can detect a wide range of resistance phenotypes Limited utility for neuraminidase inhibitors Useful for assay of neuraminidase inhibitors Chemiluminescent or fluorescent substrates Sequence analysis McKimm-BreschkinWetherall Used to detect mutations in genes known or suspected to be responsible for resistance NA gene sequences from strains isolated prior to introduction of the drugs can be used to evaluate current strain sequences Mutations in the M2 can be used to detect amantadine resistance Pachucki Researchers have recently reported a PCR assay to efficiently and accurately detect oseltamivir-sensitive and oseltamivir-resistant H5N1 strains Suwannakarn The assay is based on the fact that oseltamivir resistance is caused by a single amino acid substitution from histidine H to tyrosine Y at position of the NA active site.
Avoiding spitting is also recommended. BSL-3 and ABSL-3 practices, procedures, and facilities are recommended, along with clothing change and personal showering protocols. There may be specific requirements regarding the setting of containment levels in institutions that are subject to NIH guidelines.
HA and NA targets are used for specific identification of avian subtypes. This feature could be an advantage for diagnosis of infection with novel pandemic strains. Thus, influenza can be deadly, especially for the weak, young and old, those with compromised immune systems, or the chronically ill.
Additional requirements and recommendations apply for laboratory work involving live animals. The steps in this process are discussed in the text. One is called a Rapid Molecular Assay, when an upper respiratory tract specimen mucus is taken using a nasal swab or a nasopharyngeal swab.
Avoiding spitting is also recommended.
Because of the absence of RNA proofreading enzymes, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that copies the viral genome makes an error roughly every 10 thousand nucleotides, which is the approximate length of the influenza vRNA.
Any new or re-emergent human influenza strain with suspected pandemic potential should be treated as described for H5N1 avian influenza. First, part of the hemagglutinin protein fuses the viral envelope with the vacuole's membrane, then the M2 ion channel allows protons to move through the viral envelope and acidify the core of the virus, which causes the core to disassemble and release the viral RNA and core proteins.
The microneutralization assay can sensitively and specifically detect H5N1 antibody in patients with H5N1 influenza. Until further risk assessment data are available, the following practices and conditions are recommended for manipulation of reconstructed influenza viruses and laboratory animals infected with the viruses.
Influenza vaccine Giving an influenza vaccination The influenza vaccine is recommended by the World Health Organization and United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for high-risk groups, such as children, the elderly, health care workers, and people who have chronic illnesses such as asthmadiabetesheart diseaseor are immuno-compromised among others.
They are also advised to avoid close contact with others to prevent spread of infection.Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Symptoms can be mild to severe. The most common symptoms include: high fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, coughing, sneezing, and feeling tired. These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week.
For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About joeshammas.com Jun 26, · Avian influenza is caused by influenza A viruses.
Family: Orthomyxoviridae; Enveloped virions are 80 to nanometers (nm) in diameter and to nm long and may be filamentous. This page highlights new and noteworthy influenza-related developments and feature stories by influenza season.
For more information about this message, please visit this page: About joeshammas.com The latest disease outbreaks around the world notified to the World Health Organization.Download